Education Budget : Pakistan Economic Survey 2009-2010
Only 2pc of GDP spent on education
Islamabad, June 05: Describing education as the single-most important
factor for alleviating poverty, the Pakistan Economic Survey 2009-2010
says that public expenditure in the sector declined to a paltry 2 per
cent of the gross domestic product during the fiscal year from 2.5 per
cent of the GDP in 2006-07.
The survey puts the average
literacy rate at 57 per cent - 69 per cent for males and 45 per cent
for females - compared to 56 per cent in the preceding year. It says
the literacy rate in urban areas (at 74 per cent) remains much higher
than in rural parts of the country (48 per cent).
and Sindh have a literacy rate of 59 per cent, followed by Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa (50 per cent) and Balochistan (45 per cent).
Public expenditure on education in Pakistan, as a percentage of GDP,
compares poorly with that of other countries of South Asia, says the
report. According to figures, Pakistan allocated to the sector 2.5 per
cent of the GDP in 2006-07, 2.47 per cent in 2007-08, 2.1 per cent in
2008-09 and 2 per cent in 2009-10.
According to Unesco's
Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2009, the public sector
expenditure on education in other countries of the region is: 2.6 per
cent of the GDP in Bangladesh, 3.2 per cent in Nepal, 3.3 per cent in
India, 5.2 per cent in Iran and 8.3 per cent in the Maldives.
The poor quality of the learning environment, the document says, is
evident from the fact that a large number of schools lack basic
infrastructure - 37.7 per cent of the schools up to the elementary
level don't have boundary walls, 33.9 per cent lack drinking water
facility, 37 per cent don't have latrines and 60 per cent are without
To enhance female enrolment among low-income
households, the survey says, the schools should be provided with the
necessary infrastructure, thus improving both the output and quality of
education.The average school attendance, as measured by the Net
Enrolment Rate, is 57 per cent for 2008-09, up from 55 per cent in
The report points out that since the inception of
Higher Education Commission in 2002, spending in the higher education
sector has generally increased. However, the impact of financial
constraints of recent years has been felt in this sector as well.
Funding for non-developmental activities was curtailed in 2007-08. In
2008-09 the size of the recurring grant was similar to that of the
preceding year. In 2009-10, however, Rs8 billion provided by the World
Bank allowed the government to allocate Rs22.5 billion to the higher
However, only 60 per cent of the amount has so far been released, says the survey. Dawn
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Who should head NUML, president or COAS?
Islamabad: Chief of the Army Staff General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani will
decide whether to substitute his name with President Asif Ali Zardari
as Chairman Board of Governors (BoG) of the National University of
Modern Languages (NUML).
General Kayani heads the all powerful
NUML BoG but the National Assembly's Standing Committee on Education
has directed the NUML to put its house in order and notify the name of
the president of Pakistan as chairman BoG and remove the name of the
chief of the army staff. The name of COAS is being carried since the
Musharraf era when he was occupying both the offices, the presidency
and the Army chief.
Brigadier (retd) Aziz Ahmad said he would forward the minutes of the NA
Standing Committee's meeting to the BoG, which is headed by COAS or his
nominee. He mentioned that Pervez Musharraf, being the president of
Pakistan/chancellor of the university, had nominated the COAS as his
nominee in NUML's BoG and that nomination is still there.
said that the NUML Ordinance 2000 was silent on the chairman BoG.
However, at present, the Army chief heads the BoG. "I have not received
the minutes of the meeting of the NA committee and as soon as I receive
them, I will send them to the BoG, headed by COAS/nominee," said the
The NUML Ordinance says the president of Pakistan will
be the chancellor of the university and "shall preside over the
convocations of the University and meetings at which business of the
University is transacted."
Director General NUML Kamran Jahangir says that BoG is the only body where business of the university is transacted.
far as the issue of presiding over the board of governors meeting, the
ordinance has just mentioned the names of those who will be its
members, including the Army chief/his nominee, the nominee of the chief
justice of Pakistan, the rector himself, secretary defence/nominee,
secretary education/nominee, secretary finance/nominee, foreign
secretary/nominee, chairman HEC and senior professors of the
The ordinance does not mention that the Army chief
or his nominee would preside over the meeting, yet his nominee
inspector general Training and Evaluation, a lieutenant general,
presides over the meeting since long. President Asif Zardari as
chancellor had never been informed about the business transacted there
until the Presidency itself disclosed it after taking notice of the
thrashing event when a retired brigadier had beaten a teacher black and
blue after he had commented on the NRO. Presidency's Additional
Secretary Ishaq Lashari had confirmed in February this year that "The
president has never been involved in the university's business."
NA Committee on Education had directed the NUML on May 25, 2010 to
clarify the status of chairman board of governors, and issue a
notification clearly mentioning the name of the president of Pakistan
as the chairman and remove the name of chief of the Army staff as the
Chairman of the Committee Abid Sher Ali after that meeting said that the NUML
administration was hiding that the COAS was the chairman of its BoG
because of Musharraf era practice and they were continuing with it
while the ordinance had vested those poweors with the chancellor of the
The Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR) was asked the following questions through e-mail but it replied with "no comments".
According to NUML Ordinance 2000, it's a public sector university with
president of Pakistan as its chancellor and federal education minister
pro-chancellor. Its business transaction should be approved by the
chancellor. However, currently it's being done by a board of governors
headed by the representative of Army chief, namely inspector general
training. The ordinance said that Army chief/his representative would
be a member of the BoG like others, not the chairman as presently he
is. Would the relevant authorities explain under what legal authority
have they been granted this right?
2) The ordinance does not
mention that Army chief/ his representative would be the chairman of
BoG but this practice continues since the establishment of the
university. Can it be explained how?
3) NUML receives budgetary
grants from the allocation made for public sector universities, not by
defence department or the GHQ. Then how the Army can claim it is
4) NUML has virtually turned into a family
enterprise with rector's kith and kin. If the GHQ is the caretaker of
the university affairs, has any action been taken against those
5) NUML's rector, a retired brigadier, sent his
daughter and son-in-law abroad for PhD and the university is paying
their expenses. Their scholarships, monthly stipends and yearly tuition
fees has been approved by IGT&E-headed board of governors. Can the
IJT office explain what law allows it?.
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NUML specialises in degrees for cronies
Islamabad: The Rector of the National University of Modern Languages
(NUML), who scandalously got his doctorate under the supervision of his
own subordinates and awarded a degree to himself, also managed degrees
for his team members by personally supervising the research of three of
A retired major general, who previously headed
the Good Governance Department of NUML and now is a member of
prestigious Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC), also completed
his degree under the rector's supervision, while being the head of the
Brig (retd) Aziz Ahmad undertook their
supervision despite the fact that their degrees were about human
resource development and the rector did his doctorate in English
Literature. The rector has not only supervised research work of others
not related to his own subject, he also has been teaching management
sciences and good governance there.
A questionnaire was sent to
the rector but he refused to answer the points raised. However, the
dean of Faculty of Advance and Integrated Studies (FAIS), Dr Shazra,
confirmed that the rector was the supervisor in, at least,
We also contacted Maj Gen (retd) Qureshi, who
confirming being supervised by the rector, said it was not his fault
and instead was the decision of the NUML management to have his work
supervised by Brig (retd) Aziz Ahmad.
He said such
finger-pointing had forced him to abandon plans of doing his PhD from
the NUML. But Dr Shazra insisted Maj Gen (retd) Qureshi was the head of
the Governance Department when he completed his Masters.
directors of examination and finance also confirmed being supervised by
the rector. The additional director of academic branch, however, was
not available for comments. All these four cases stand out prominently
since the candidates were under direct subordination of the rector
serving on positions crucial for running the university's business.
Gen (retd) Owais Mushtaq Qureshi, now member FPSC, did his MS in
Management Sciences from the NUML when was heading the Good Governance
Department and intriguingly, the rector was supervising his research.
Maj Gen (retd) Qureshi, it was the rector's daughter, Ayesha, heading
the department and she was appointed visiting professor there that was
declared unlawful by a team of auditors because it was done without
advertising the slot.
As the rector sent her daughter Ayesha
along with her husband, Waqas, to the UK for NUML-funded PhD, Maj Gen
(retd) Qureshi was made the head of the department.
Now he has
been appointed as an FPSC member with these credentials and would be
assessing the competency of candidates for superior service jobs. He
has been replaced in the Good Governance Department by another retired
major general, Usman Shah, who had previously headed a committee
selected the rector's daughter and son-in-law for the PhD scholarship.
Ahmad, director examination of the NUML, is second case in point
besides Maj Gen (retd) Owais Qureshi supervised by the rector. He not
only had himself enrolled for MS in Human Resource Development (HRD) in
the university whose examination branch is headed by him, his thesis
was supervised by the rector whose specialisation is in English, not
Tufail Khalil, director finance, is third in the row doing
MS in HRD from the NUML and supervised by the rector. Jehangir Akhtar,
additional director of academic branch of the NUML, also did his MS in
HRD from the same university and research work supervised by the rector.
a question whether rules were violated, an official said it is more
about the academic ethics and conflict of interest than the rules. The
official further questioned how a rector with doctorate in English can
supervise the work of candidates doing MS in Human Resource Development
and Management Sciences. The news
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