Spending on science in the developing world
Poor states increased spending on science
Islamabad, Oct 14: Spending on science in the developing world grew three times than
the rate of richer countries between 2002 and 2007.
was stated in figures of Unesco Institute for Statistics (UIS) released
by the London-based Science and Development Network.
also interesting to note that the number of researchers in developing
countries jumped from 1.8 million to 2.7 million in the same period.
third UIS survey on statistics of science and technology indicated, on
several counts, that the gap in investment rates in science between the
developed and developing worlds is closing. While spending on research
and development (R&D) by developed countries grew by about one
third (32 per cent) during the period, developing countries more than
doubled their spending (103%), from $135 to $274 billion.
surge in researcher numbers means that the developing world employed 30
per cent of researchers in 2002 but 38 per cent by 2007. The survey,
which is conducted every two years, focuses on human resources devoted
to, and expenditure on, R&D.
The results showed that R&D
investment also increased in developing countries. Total spending on
R&D by developing countries accounted for one per cent of their
gross domestic product (GDP) in 2007, up from 0.8 per cent in 2002,
said the data. This compares with 2.3 per cent for the developed world.
figures, however, concealed big differences between the more advanced
developing nations and the least developed countries. China, for
example, increased its R&D spending to 1.5 per cent of GDP by 2007,
and accounts for over half (53%) of researchers in developing
countries. Only six countries other than China are spending one per
cent or more of GDP on research.
While developing nations as a
whole more than doubled their R&D expenditure, this figure fell to
a less than three quarters increase (73 per cent) once China and India
were removed from the calculation. But even in the 50 least developed
countries (defined according to the standard UN classification), there
was an average 20 per cent increase in researchers. There was also a
slight increase - from 40 to 43 - in the number of researchers per
million inhabitants. However, these countries still only have 0.5 per
cent of the world's researchers.
In South Africa, the number of
researchers grew by nearly a third (31 per cent) over the five-year
period. This also represents an 18 per cent increase in the number of
researchers per million inhabitants (from 51 to 60), a key figure used
by economists as an indicator of a country's commitment to science. In
the rest of Africa, there was an overall higher increase of 34 per cent
in the number of researchers, from 32,000 to 43,000.
Tindemans, former head of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development Global Science Forum, observed that it is unlikely that the
United States will spend much more than its current figure of about
2.75 per cent of GDP [on R&D], but it is very likely that China
will grow from its present 1.6 per cent or so to above two per cent.
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City, Country: Gilgit
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Govt yet to construct 427 destroyed Malakand schools
Peshawar: Militants have destroyed 427 educational institutions, most
of them for girls, in three districts of the Malakand Division, but the
government is yet to launch efforts to rebuild these schools to ensure
better future for the students.
The education sector was worst
hit by the militancy in the division during the last more than two
years. Hundreds of schools were blown up or torched and the process of
education halted several times. Most of the Malakand Division districts
saw militancy, but campaign against the schools, particularly that of
girls, was fierce in Swat and Dir districts.
available with The News shows that 323 schools in Swat, 67 in Dir Lower
and 37 in Dir Upper have been targeted. However, sources said only four
schools were attacked in Dir Upper. The militants completely destroyed
117 girl schools and partially damaged 67 others. Out of the destroyed
girl schools, three were higher secondary, 15 high, 35 middle and 79
primary schools. The data shows that 32, 409 students were enrolled in
As far as the boys schools are concerned, 49 were
fully destroyed while 90 partially damaged. These included eight higher
secondary, 34 high, 23 middle and 70 primary schools. A total of 104
schools were attacked in the two districts of Dir.
militants, led by Fazlullah, used attacks on schools, particularly in
Swat valley, as war tactic to bring the government to its knees. The
militants also targeted health and communication infrastructures, but
education suffered the most. Also, the militants following a
particularly ideology wanted to replace "the infidel curriculum" with
an Islamic one that could create "Mujahideen and honest people."
of the educational institutions remained closed in the most volatile
areas of the valley for a long time, affecting the students education.
However, officials in Swat and Dir Upper districts said all the schools
had been made operational and none of the destroyed institutions was
closed at the moment. The thirst for education can be judged from this
aspect, as the Taliban-terrorised people are willing to send their
children to schools, enabling authorities to revive this sector.
bombed a girls' middle school in Bibyawar town in Dir Upper in June
2008 and warned the students and teachers not to attend the school.
However, locals said, the school hardly remained closed for a week or
so. Showing great commitment to education, the students restarted
education in the ruined school sending a strong message to the
militants that they won't stop coming to schools.
"It was a
defeat for the militants who, despite blowing the building up, could
not deter students to abandon education," a resident, whishing
anonymity, said. "The Pakistani flag is still fluttering and national
anthem echoing in this school," he said of the continuing process of
However, United Nations Children's Fund (Unicef) has
launched work on the reconstruction of schools in Dir Upper. District
Coordinator of the Unicef, Mir Mazharuddin, told The News by phone they
completed the reconstruction of the five-room school in Bibyawar with a
cost of Rs1.1 million. He said the UN agency would be spending Rs5
million more on the revival of three other schools.
work has been launched in Swat valley, where hundreds of schools are
the scenes of rubble, to build the destroyed schools. However, the
assistant district officer planning and development in education
department of Swat, Fazal Ahad, said none of the schools was
"We started education in the nearest buildings
of the destroyed schools, taking second shifts in the schools that are
still intact and established 58 tent schools. Even schools in Peochar
are functional," Ahad claimed.
The government and Unicef, he
added, were still to assess the losses caused to the schools. He said
11,000 teachers were working in 1,576 state-run schools. He confessed
that quality education could not be provided to the students on account
of persistent uncertainty and trauma.
The officer said he had
no data of the dropout students, but said attendance was thin in
certain areas due to uncertain security situation. The attendance, he
said, had dropped by 25 percent in Charbagh and Manglawar areas.
education officer said army would construct six schools while the
Faisal Bank would build one. In Dir Lower, reconstruction of the
blown-up schools has not been started yet. The people have been
demanding the revival of these educational institutions so that the
studies of their children may not be affected. The news
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Protest against Text Book Board chairman held
Peshawar: The activists of Frontier Publishers Association NWFP
staged protest demonstration against the members and chairman of Text
Book Board and strongly condemned the misbehaviour of the officials.
In front of Peshawar Press Club here on Tuesday, the workers of
Frontier Publishers Association NWFP protested against the said
officials. The protest rally led by the association president Iqtidar
The protesters were carrying banners and placards inscribed with
slogans against the chairman and members of the Text Book Board. They
were also chanted full-throated slogans against the said that official
while condemning their misbehaviour. They were of the view that the
said chairman allocated members in the board on nepotism and
Addressing the protesters, the president of Frontier Publishers
Association NWFP Iqtidar Ali Akhunzada alleged that the allocation
committee consisting of text book board chairman and members destroyed
the terms and condition of the board as they had done allocation on
He was of the view that the steps taken by the allocation committee was
highly condemnable and demanded of the board to resolve the issue on
table-talk. He said that the board administration continuously refusal
of the table-talks seems that the administration wanted to disguise the
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FATA IT teachers demanded regularization
Peshawar: All FATA IT Teachers and Lab Incharge Union president
Anwar Hayat on Tuesday demanded of the Governor NWFP to regularize all
contract IT teachers and laboratory incharges and provide them all
facilities and allowances.
Speaking during a news conference at Peshawar Press Club here, he said
that the federal government kicked of IT Management Project in 2004
with the collaboration of provincial government, adding that it was
fixed that all the contract employees of the project would be made
regularized after three years, but still the employees are deprived of
their regularization rights.
He said that all the contract IT teachers and lab incharges had to be
regularized in 2007, but they are yet to be regularized, demanding that
to regularize the teachers and IT incharges was due right of the
project employees. He said that the administration was also informed in
this regard but no response had given to them yet.
All FATA IT Teachers and Lab Incharge Union president further said that
likewise ICT and FATA employees of the same project in the other areas,
the teachers and lab incharges posts should be regularize and also
given the grade of 16 and 17, adding that the if the government had not
regularize the same officials, it would be great injustice with the
people of FATA.
He warned that if the government failed to fulfill their demands, the
imployees would move the court against the government in this
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Outstanding UMS students awarded
Peshawar: The students of senior section of University Model School for
Girls were awarded prizes for their outstanding performance at the 54th
annual prize distribution ceremony on Tuesday.
The principal of
the school presented the annual report of the institution and the
success stories of students on various forums. She said this year out
of 137 students of science group, 64 secured AI grade, 65 A Grade, 7 b
grade with an overall 100 percent success ratio. She added the school
was a beacon of knowledge and wisdom and that was so because of a team
effort of the staff members.
Students presented various
tableau and national songs among which 'Watan Kahani' was a standout
performance. University of Peshawar Registrar Sherinzada Khattak was
the chief guest on the occasion and distributed prizes to the students.
Jan of the Humanities group won the gold medal by securing 3rd position
in the group in the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education,
Peshawar, Iman Tauqeer and Shandana Kifayat won silver medal for taking
7th position in the BISE while Afad Gul, Anum Rehman and Spoogmai Naeem
were awarded silver medal for their distinctions in Peshawar board as
well. The overall the best student of the year award was given to Uzma
Ikhtiar. The news
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Tribute paid to Baloch scholar
Islamabad: Speakers at a literary seminar here on Monday
showered tributes on the memory of the indomitable Baloch progressive
nationalist poet, historian, politician and journalist Mir Gul Khan
Naseer (1914-1983), who worked tirelessly for the rights of the people
Prominent among those who shed light on the
life and contribution of the polyglot poet, included Senator Ismail
Buledi, Senator Dr Abdul Malik and Nawabzada Mir Lashkari Raisani,
Chairman, Senate Standing Committee on Water and Power, writers such as
Wahid Buksh Buzdar, Raheem Buhksh Mehr, Ziaur Rahman Baloch, Advocate
Muhammad Usman and historian Dr Arshed Hameed.
They saw the
conference as an attempt to bring the neglected resource-rich restive province to the national mainstream.
Senator Nawabzada Raisani, who is also president of Balochistan chapter
of PPP, described Gul Khan Naseer as the leading intellectual and poet
of his age, who wrote patriotic poetry in the Baloch language as well
as in English, Urdu and Persian.
"He not only raised his
voice against exploitation but also revolted against a constricted
political order. From the prison during the Ayub regime he gave a wake
up call to the Baloch nationalists and provided political guidance to
the people. Senator Ismail Buledi stressed the need for practical steps
to end the sense of deprivation of Baloch people, and to solve their
problems which have been kept on the back burner during the last 60
years. "Balochistan must be put on the road to progress," said Senator
Senator Abdul Malik appreciated the sentiment adding
that the late poet worked for the unity and self-respect of Baloch
people in spite of many hardships.
In his presidential
remark, Prof Wahid Bakhsh Buzdar referred to the central point in the
poetical works of Mir Gul Khan Naseer, which was filled with protest
and revolution brining new voice to modern Baloch poetry.
composed resistant poetry all his life and opposed class conflicts and
political oppression, not as slogan but from personal observation of
the national scene."
"He lives in the hearts of his people," Prof Buzdar observed.
Gul Khan Naseer was at the forefront of the Baloch nationalist movement
and was most active between 1935 and 1980. He wrote poems in English,
Urdu, Balochi, Brahvi and Persian. He was a good friend of Faiz Ahmed
Mir Gul Khan's poetry is filled with revolutionary and
anti-imperialist themes and reflects his progressive and socialist
ideals. Mir Gul Khan wrote many books on history and poetry and
translated several works from other languages into Balochi and Urdu. Dawn
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